graphic of iphigenia TROY
Goethe's (and Euripides') Iphigenia in Tauris and Kleist's Penthesilea Bibliography

Abrams, M. H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Anderson, M.S. Europe in the Eighteenth Century 1713-1783. In Series, A General History of Europe, Ed. Denys Hay. 1961. 2nd Edition London: Longman, 1976.

Bergstraesser, Arnold. Goethe's Image of Man and Society. Chicago: Henry Rognery Co., 1949.

Boyle, Nicholas. Goethe: The Poet and the Age. Vol. I. The Poetry of Desire 1749-1790). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1991.

Colby, Ursula J. "The Sorrows of Iphigenie." PEGS n.s. 35 (1965): 38-67.

Cottrell, Alan P. "On Speaking the Good: Goethe's Iphigenie as 'moralisches Urphaenomen.'" Modern Language Quarterly 41 (1980): 162-80. [on Christian elements in Iphigenie]

Dietrich, Donna and Harry Marshall. "Thoas and Iphigenia: A Reappraisal." In Ugrinsky, Alexej, ed. Goethe in the Twentieth Century. Contributions to the Study of World Literature Series No. 17. New York: Greenwood, 1987: 61-66.

Dutu, Alexandru. "Trois Iphigenies ou la metamorphose des themes...litteraire." Komparatistische Hefte (KompH), Bayreuth, Germany: Vol. 13, 1986: 5-12. [compares Racine's and Goethe's Iphigenias re: sacrifice; reference to Eliade]

Dyer, Denys. "Iphigenie: The Role of the Curse." PEGS 50 (1980): 29-54.

Ergang, Robert. Europe From the Renaissance to Waterloo. 1939. Edition with revised bibliography. Boston: D.C. Heath, 1954.

Euripides. Iphigenia at Tauris. In Ten Plays by Euripides. Trans. by Moses Hadas and John McLean; Intro. by Moses Hadas. 1960. Bantam Classics Edition. New York:Bantam, 1981.

Fowler, Frank M. "The Problem of Goethe's Orest: New Light on Iphigenie auf Tauris." PEGS 51 (1981): 1-26.

Furst, Lilian R. "Mythology into Psychology: Deux ex Machina into God Within." Comparative Literature Studies 1984 Spring, Vol. 21 No.1: 1-15. [Iphigenias: Racine compared to Goethe; from ancient god motivation to modern psychological motivation]

-------. Romanticism in Perspective: A Comparative Study of Aspects of the Romantic Movement in England, France and Germany. 1979.

Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation: The Rise of Modern Paganism. New York: Vintage Books, 1968.

Glicksohn, Jean-Michel.  "Iphigenie, de la Grece antique a l'Europe des lumieres." L'Information Litteraire: Revue Paraissant Cinq Fois Par An 1985, Vol. 37 No.2: 54-59.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Iphigenia in Tauris. Trans. and Intro. by Charles E. Passage. 1963. Reissued. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1991.

Hatfield, Henry. Aesthetic Paganism in German Literature from Winckelmann to the Death of Goethe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964. [general overview; section on Iphigenia]

Heitner, Robert R. "The Iphigenia in Tauris Theme in Drama of the Eighteenth Century." Comparative Literature 1964, Vol.16: 289-309.

Hobson, Irmgard W. "Goethe's Iphigenie: A Lacanian Reading." Goethe Yearbook 2 (1984):51-67.

-------. "Updating the Classics: Faust and Iphigenie in Stuttgart, 1977." German Studies Review 3 (1980):435-55.

Kleist, Heinrich von. Penthesilea. Trans. and Intro. by Joel Agee; Illus. by Maurice Sendak. Michael di Capua Books, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998. 

Lange, Victor, Ed. Goethe: a Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1968.

Larkin, Edward. "Aggression and Dialogue in Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris: Competing Principles of Societal and Personal Intercourse." Crossings--Kreuzungen. Festschrift Helmut Kreuzer. Ed. Edward R. Haymes. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1990: 92-103.

Leppmann, Wolfgang. The German Image of Goethe. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961.

Malek, James S. and Franklin D. Carson. "Tragic Effects in Euripides' Iphigenia in Tauris and Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris." Classical and Modern Literature: A Quarterly 1981 Winter, Vol.1 No.2: 109-119.

Ockenden, R. C. "On Bringing Statues to Life: Reading Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris and Torquato Tasso." Publications of the English Goethe Society (PEGS) 55 (1985): 69-106.

Peacock, Ronald. "Goethe's Version of Poetic Drama" Publications of the English Goethe Society, N.S. Vol. XVI, 29-53, 1947. Rpt. in Lange.

Prandi, Julie D. "Goethe's Iphigenia as Woman." Germanic Review 1985 Winter, Vol. 60 No.1: 23-31. [eternal feminine; feminist; men see Iphigenia as pure and calm, a beautiful soul; she struggles to break from her prison and draws on the strength of her Tantalid ancestry; ultimately, men are political and women not; two separate models for ideal humanity; a source of the "eternal feminine" myth]

Proudhoe, John Edgar. The Theatre of Goethe and Schiller. Totowa N.J.: Bowman and Littlefield, 1973.

Reed, T. J. The Classical Centre: Goethe and Weimar 1775-1832. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1980. [outdated in its time; old hat discussion of classicism as the "psychological center of a national literature" (13); center of Iphigenie is ethical vs. mechanical in Euripides (stealing statue of Artemis)(60); Euripides' gods are mechanical (deus ex machina) while Iphigenie's conception of the gods is highly developed and ethical (61); 18th c. Germany inherited Christianity and 17th c. rationalism; neither used sense experience]

Reiss, Hans. "The Consequences of 'Theological' Politics in Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris." In James, Dorothy and Silvia Ranawake, eds. Patterns of Changes: German Drama and the European Tradition. Festschrift Ronald Peacock. New York: Lang, 1990: 59-71. [old theological politics vs. new humanism based on natural law]

Reynolds, Susan Helen. "'Erstaunlich modern und ungriechische?' Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris and its Classical Background." Publications of the English Goethe Society 57 (1988): 55-74.

Roubczek, Paul. "Some Aspects of German Philosophy in the Romantic Period." In The Romantic Period in Germany: Essays by Members of the London University Institute of Germanic Studies. Ed. Siegbert Prawer. New York: Schocken Books, 1970: 305-323.

Salm, Peter. "Truthtelling and Lying in Goethe's Iphigenie." German Life and Letters 34 (1981): 351-58. [Iphigenie's "Christian humanity" allows her to break from fatal Tantalid past and heal the situation]

Seidlin, Oskar. "Goethe's Iphigenia and the Humane Ideal." Essays in German and Comparative Literature, by Oskar Seidlin. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961:30-44. Rpt. in Lange, Victor, ed. Goethe: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968: 50-64.

-------. "Goethe's Iphigenia in Tauris: A Modern Use of a Greek Dramatic Theme." Pref. and For. by Mark Morford; Epilogue by Kenneth M. Abbot. Morford, Mark; Abbot, Kenneth M., eds. The Endless Fountain: Essays on Classical Humanism. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1972: 127-135. [only through truth can humans break through the ancient determinism; Iphigenia as human archetype; Orestes=Goethe; Iphigenie=Charlotte v. Stein]

Sims-Gunzenhauser, William D. "Conflict of the Inner Life in Goethe's Iphigenie and Shelly's Cenci." Neophilologus 63 (1979): 95-107.

Ugrinsky, Alexej, Ed. Goethe in the Twentieth Century. Conference held at Hofstra University April 1982. Contributions to the Study of World Literature Series No. 17. New York: Greenwood, 1987.

Wagner, Irmgard. Critical Approaches to Goethe's Classical Dramas: Iphigenie, Torquato Tasso, AND Die naturliche Tochter. Literary Criticism in Perspective, James Hardin, General Editor. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1995. [Surprisingly interesting. Evidently Iphigenie was as much a culture icon as Faust and was interpreted according to the changing needs of German culture, from idealistic humanism to biological determinism to existential freedom, including, alas, National Socialism, where the truly superior being, acting alone, can change humanity.]

Weisinger, Kenneth D. The Classical Facade: A Nonclassical Reading of Goethe's Classicism. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988. [Interesting and useful. Argues that there were major (romantic) tensions in the apparent classicism of Goethe; discusses Iphigenie's descent from the Titan Tantalus, rebellion against the gods, and her drive to reconcile with her family history, not the gods]

Willoughby, L.A. The Romantic Movement in Germany. 1930. Reissued. New York: Russell and Russell, 1966.

Wittkowski, Wolfgang.  "Goethe's Iphigenie: Autonomous Humanity and the Authority of the Gods in the Era of Benevolent Despotism." In Ugrinsky, Goethe in the Twentieth Century:77-83

-------. ."Propitious Moments with Greek Ladies: Goethe's Orestes and Iphigenia, Faust and Helen." Phenomenological Inquiry: A Review of Philosophical Ideas and Trends 1993 Oct., Vol. 17. 62-73. [kairos; death; fulfillment]

Last Updated: October 14, 2010

© Thompson: 9/22/1998