Writing about literature—some
Start with a thesis:
You are the detective who forms a thesis
(or hypothesis) about a literary text (which I shall call the text), and the
text itself must be the source of all your supporting evidence. Your goal is
to persuade your readers that your thesis is valid because the text
citations and references do indeed support it. A thesis should propose an
interesting answer to the question “So what?”
- A thesis is NOT simply a statement of fact.
- Penelope (from the Odyssey), Esther (from the Hebrew Bible) and Shahrazad (from
the Arabian Nights) are all brave women. So what? What is interesting about
- Each is brave in a society that controls women, gives
them little power, and yet each acts with bravery and intelligence to protect
her own family, castle and kingdom (Penelope), her own people (Esther), or the
young women of the kingdom (Shahrazad).
- Now that statement is a thesis—it proposes something
interesting which all these women share. Your job then is to support your
thesis using specific examples from each text. The support for your thesis
will be your essay.
Find some aspect of the
in the Odyssey--why is she interesting? How does she behave? Does she have
An element of the plot
it takes Odysseus ten years to get home from Troy--why does
it take so long? What delays him? How does he deal with the delays?
- The way it is written
- in Voltaire's Candide, characters
are killed and come back to life; all sorts of terrible things happen
without any reflection on them--how does that affect us as readers?
- An idea presented explicitly in the text
- Voltaire presents and trashes the idea of philosophical Optimism in
- Virgil presents the idea of Destiny as crucial to the outcome of the
- The Oresteia of Aeschylus shows the need to end
blood feuds and explains the origins of the court of law in Athens.
- The Hebrew Bible presents the laws given by God
to the Israelites.
- Dante's Inferno gives ample evidence of the just
and appropriate nature of God's punishment of each sinner.
- Shahrazad manages through her bravery, cleverness
and sexuality to keep the king
from killing her or the other women in the kingdom.
- Penelope manages through her bravery, cleverness
and sexuality to keep the suitors under
control long enough for Odysseus to return and take over his kingdom.
- After ten years of warfare and ten more years of
wandering, Odysseus, thanks to his great intelligence and some help from
Athena, does return home and retake his palace.
If you are doing a comparison, find
some common element in the two texts you are comparing.
- Penelope and Shahrazad are both very clever women
who manage to survive and even prevail in dangerous male-dominated
- Achilles and Aeneas are two very different
kinds of culture heroes. So what?
- Plot elements
- The story of Gilgamesh, the story of Joseph from the
Hebrew Bible, and the Aeneid all use dreams to
indicate what the future may hold, but each does so in a different way.
How do the dreams operate in each text? And, of course, so what?
- Dante's journey through the Inferno has much in
common with Aeneas' visit to the Underworld in Book 6 of the Aeneid.
What are the similarities and what are the profound differences?
- Both the Oresteia and the Hebrew Bible deal
with developing laws to regulate human behavior. How are they
similar and how are they profoundly different in their ideas about
the source and function of laws?
- The ideal of a hero is profoundly different
in the Iliad, the Aeneid and the Song of Roland. What essential
differences do you see? Can you document them from their texts? And,
of course, so what?
Stick to the text. There are serious problems with historical
Times and cultures change in all sorts of ways,
not just from bad to good or vice versa.
- Without endless study, one does not know enough.
- Just because Aphrodite in the Iliad is represented as
cowardly does not mean that women had debased roles in Homeric Greece; there
is no way to know that from the text.
- Eve did indeed offer Adam the apple, which he joined
her in eating. However, the focus on woman as responsible for the "fall of
man" is not emphasized in the Hebrew Bible; it develops in the Christian
middle ages, so if you write about Eve's disobedience and punishment, stick to
what you actually find in the Genesis story, not what you may have learned in
Sunday School or later.
- Although women had various
interesting roles in the Odyssey and perhaps in the Bronze Age Homer is writing
about, they were much more limited in 5th century Athens (but NOT in
5th century Sparta).
- While a warlord might be admired in the Iliad and
despised in the Aeneid, that does not mean the world has progressed. Consider
the warlords creating local wars in various countries today.
Do NOT make generalizations that go beyond the
information the text provides. Stick to what you actually have.
You could write that both Eve and Dido
changed the lives of the men they were connected to, Eve by presenting Adam
with the apple, leading to the expulsion from Eden, and Dido by keeping Aeneas
with her in Carthage while his Destiny was to go to Italy and help to found
the Roman civilization.
- Do NOT go on to the next step
which would be to write that because Eve brought the apple to Adam and Dido
delayed Aeneas getting to Italy, all women interfere with men’s purpose or
Pay attention to CONTEXT
Context is the entire text you
are working with.
You need to be sure that what you choose to write about
does not get contradicted elsewhere in the same text.
You must be able to defend your
interpretation in terms of the entire text you are working with.
I once sat in a Faust seminar while a
brilliant student analyzed a section of the play, reading and explicating
each word and line. The only problem was, on the next page, there was
material that contradicted her interpretation.
Read any introductions and study
guides offered to you; they really can make a difference in how you approach
and understand each text.
Plan to read the text more than once and
take notes on what you are reading. I can never get enough understanding of
a text on one reading to write about it reliably.
Support each assertion you make.
Either quote from the specific
part of the text that you have drawn from and cite the place where you found
OR refer the text without quoting it, but
cite the place where you found the information.
It is actually better to avoid using many
quotes because they will jar the style of your essay. When you cite a text, if
it has line numbers use those; if it has page numbers, you need to include the
edition you are using. The point is that your reader could go to the text and
find your support.
If I wanted to assert that Dante’s purpose
in creating the Inferno was to show the justice of God’s punishments, I would need to
select certain punishments and explain why these punishments were appropriate for the sinners
being so punished. I would cite Canto and line numbers whether or
not I actually quoted from the section.