HIS 135
Sample Exam Chronology

(Created by Michelle Bolden)
1945-1953 USA Harry Truman President
1945-1991 USA/Russia Cold War
1947 USA President Truman announced U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece independence
1947 Rio Pact U.S. influences most Latin American countries to ban communist parties and accept a collective security agreement
1948 OAS Organization of American States follows Rio Pact
1949 Soviet Union Exploded their first atomic bomb
1949 West Germany Federal Republic of West Germany created
1950 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization (U.S., Canada, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Italy, and Portugal) created (Greece and Turkey in 1952)
1950 NSC NSC-68, a secret planning document
1950 USA Central Intelligence Agency created
1950-1953 Korean War North Korea attacks South Korea
1951 Europe European Coal and Steel Authority merged mines and steel mills in France, West Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries
1953 Soviet Union Stalin’s Death
1953 Soviet Union Exploded their hydrogen bomb (nine months after the U.S. did)
1953-1961 USA Dwight D. Eisenhower President
1954 Vietnam Viet minh defeated the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, US later started protecting S. Korea
1955 USA Rosa M. Parks refused to give up her bus seat in Montgomery, AL
1955 Warsaw Pact Alliance of Eastern European client states
1956 Hungary Revolted against Soviet domination (U.S. would not interfere)
1956 USA Retaliated against allies (British, French, and Israelis) invading Egypt
1956-1964 Soviet Union Nikita S. Khrushchev
1957 Europe France, West Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries signed the Treaties of Rome and formed the European Economic Commission (EEC)
1958-1969 France General de Gaulle wanted Europe to be independent of the bi-polar powers of U.S. and Soviet domination, ousted NATO from France, attacked the international monetary system, demanding gold for payments
1959 Cuba Fidel Castro came to power after the Cuban Revolution
1960  Vietnam National Liberation Front (FLN in French) started guerrilla operations in S. Vietnam jungles
1961 Cuba Cuban refugees formed by CIA overtaken at the Bay of Pigs
1961 Soviet Union Berlin Wall built to keep people in
1961-1963 USA John F. Kennedy President
1962 Cuba/USA Cuban Missile Crisis with missile bases in Cuba
1963-1969 USA Lyndon B. Johnson President
1964 USA Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Martin Luther King
1968 Vietnam The FLN achieved great successes and infiltrated the American Embassy, bringing the war to a close
1968 USA Martin Luther King assassinated
1969-1974 USA Richard M. Nixon President
1972 China/USA President Nixon visits China
1972 Soviet Union/USA President Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev come to terms after 3 years of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I)
1973 Vietnam Withdrawal of U.S. troops
1973 OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries created to control costs
1975 Vietnam The war was lost when North Vietnamese entered Saigon
1975 Europe European Security Conference in Helsinki, Finland, European countries and the U.S. promised to honor each others borders
1977-1981 USA Jimmy Carter President
1979 Soviet Union/USA President Carter and Soviets come to terms on the second round of SALT; 7 European nations lifted passport examination between their borders
Final Exam Chronology
1500-1914 Power Center European countries were the power center
1850-1991 Century "long twentieth century"
1914-1945 World Economy Crises period
1914-1991 Century "short twentieth century" / Nation-states quintupled
1945-1973 World Economy Growth Surge
1945-1991 Cold War Cold War Era
1945-1991 Power Center Soviet Union and USA vied for the power center position
1953 Science Discovery of Molecular structure of DNA
1963 Arms Control Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibited nuclear testing in the atmosphere, space, and under water; only underground testing allowed
1968 Arms Control Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) prohibited signatory states without nuclear weapons from acquiring them.
1973-1998 World Economy Slowed growth and episodic recessions
1979 Energy Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, Nuclear plant disaster
1986 Energy Chernobyl (Ukraine) Nuclear plant disaster
1987 Science Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete The Ozone Layer
1987 Arms Control Missile Technology Control Regime, agreement to halt spread of ballistic missile technology.
1988 Science Pivotal year when "greenhouse" effect became front page news
1988 Arms Control Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), eliminated both intermediate (600-3400 miles) and shorter range (300-600 miles) land based missiles.
1991 Arms Control Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I, limited number of super power delivery vehicles and warheads.
1992 Science UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro halting of CFC use
1992 Arms Control Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I, limited number of super power delivery vehicles and warheads.
1992 Arms Control Global Positioning System (GPS) became available for accurate navigation (used with cruise missiles).
1993 Arms Control International Atomic Energy Agency censured N. Korea for non-compliance of the NPT.
1995 Arms Control Renewal of Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) prohibiting signatory states without nuclear weapons from acquiring them.
1996 Arms Control Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), if ratified, will prevent tests.
1996 Science Scottish scientist cloned a sheep
2000 Century New millennium
2000 Power Center Three power centers will exist - Europe, North America, and East Asia

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