|Why did Roland wait to blow his horn? Look closely at the
three horn blowing discussions and explain what their purpose is in the poem. Use specific
examples from the poem to support your discussion.
|Roland is a hero; Charlemagne is a king. Compare/contrast
their characters and roles. Could Roland fit into some ancient epic such as the
or Gilgamesh? What about Charlemagne? Is he like any
other king you have read about? Support your discussion with examples from
Roland and from some other ancient epic.
|Look through Roland to find examples of Saracens
(Muslims) represented as evil, deceitful and demonic. Do you think this was a normal way
to write about strangers at that time and in that place? What do you think motivated such hostility? Discuss
this issue using plenty of specific examples from the poem to support your ideas.
|Compare the expression of monotheistic faith in Sura 1,
"The Exordium," from the Koran (in your textbook
or find it on the Course Materials Table on the Course Home Page) to the descriptions of
the pagan, idol worshipping infidels in Roland. Do you think the
was genuinely ignorant of Muslim religion, or that he had his own agenda and reasons for
presenting the Saracens as demonic heathens?
|Sura 5, "The Table," from the
your textbook or find it on the Course Material Table on the Course Home
Page) talks at some length about Christians and Jews, and their relation to
Islam. The Koran accepted both Christians and Jews as "people of the
book," but asserted that the Koran was a correction to errors that had crept
into these earlier monotheistic religions. Discuss the attitudes towards Christians and
Jews that you find in "The Table" and compare it to the attitudes towards
Muslims that you find in Roland. What are the significant differences? Do you find
any interesting similarities? Be specific in your responses and refer to examples from the
texts you are analyzing.
|Roland is one of a group of early French epics, or
"chansons de geste" which have been compared to American Western movies:
fighting men, horses, buddies, no women, good versus evil, etc. Do you agree? If so,
select a particular Western movie and compare it to Roland in some detail. Be sure
to support your ideas with plenty of specific supporting examples from
Roland and the film, and be sure
to explain "so what."
|Compare the relationship of two sets of buddies: Roland and
Oliver and Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Do you see any relevant similarities? Any interesting
differences? And, so what? Be sure to go into plenty of specific examples from both texts to support
|Compare the roles of Charlemagne in
Roland and Aeneas
in the Aeneid. Both are in charge of world class empires, or at least their
beginnings, and both fight "holy" wars of a sort, Aeneas to fulfill Roman
destiny, and Charlemagne to free Europe of the pagan infidels. Both seem to suffer a lot
and neither has a good time. Compare them in some detail, using specific examples from
both text to support your ideas.
|Read about the life of Charlemagne in any good encyclopedia
or history of Europe, or look at Einhard's brief, readable
Life of Charlemagne,
written in the ninth century, and compare what you find out to the presentation of
Charlemagne in Roland. Why do you think there are so many differences? Do you think
the Roland poet was aware of how he was changing Charlemagne into a Christian
saint, or do you think this had already happened in the centuries since Charlemagne's
death? Explain your position referring to specific information you have read about
Charlemagne and specific examples from the poem.
|Do you think the Roland poet knew the "Sermon on
the Mount" from The New Testament (in your textbook
or find it online on the Course Home Page Course Materials Table for
Unit 2)? If so, how do you think
he interpreted it? Was this the key to his idea of being a good Christian? If not, what
was? Explain in some detail, using specific examples from both texts, and be sure to
develop an interesting point (e.g. SO WHAT?)
|Some critics have suggested that epic poems such as
were composed in monasteries along pilgrimage routes, to help drum up tourist traffic.
Would this help to explain the god-like quality of Charlemagne and the warrior-saint
nature of Roland? Or is this too cynical a view of a great poem? Give your opinion, but
support it with specific details from the poem, and, ideally, a few facts from an
encyclopedia or some such (be sure to cite the source of your
|For all its extremist religious politics,
presents a picture of surprisingly democratic interaction between the peers and the
emperor. Look closely at the way decisions are made, both at Charlemagne's court and in
the field, and describe in some detail the process of debate and consensus that guides the
nobles in their actions. Can you think of any other story you have read in this course
that involves such democratic processes? Or is democratic even the right word for this
struggle for consensus among the aristocracy? Comment and support your ideas using
specific examples from the story. If you deal in lots of comparative
detail with a second story too, this can be worth double credit.
Military Martyrs and discuss in detail how this concept of the
fighting saint may help to explain Roland's role in the battle and his
final ascent to heaven. Be sure to give specific examples from the
Military Martyrs pages and from Roland to support your
|When Roland finally does blow the horn,
he bursts a blood vessel in his head, and this causes his death.
Why do you think this is how he dies? Hints: Can you explain its link
to the horn-blowing episodes? Can you explain its connection to the
absolute superiority of Roland to the "pagans?" Can you
connect Roland's means of death to the angel coming to receive his
glove (his fealty). Use specific examples from the poem to support